They integrate staffing, training, job and organization redesign, process improvements and other responses. They aid in succession planning. They enhance career development. Generally Accepted Definitions for Knowledge Management and Transfer Knowledge Management KM refers to practices used by organizations to find, create, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness, and learning across the organization. Knowledge Management programs are typically tied to organizational objectives and are intended to lead to the achievement of specific outcomes such as shared intelligence, improved performance, or higher levels of innovation.
Knowledge Transfer an aspect of Knowledge Management has always existed in one form or another through on-the-job discussions with peers, apprenticeship, and maintenance of agency libraries, professional training and mentoring programs. Since the late twentieth century, technology has played a vital role in Knowledge Transfer through the creation of knowledge bases, expert systems, and other knowledge repositories. To understand knowledge management and knowledge transfer, it is helpful to examine the differences between data, information, and knowledge.
Data is discrete, objective facts. Data is the raw material for creating information. By itself, data carries no judgment, interpretation or meaning. It has been sorted, analyzed and displayed, and is communicated through various means. Information changes the way a person perceives something, thus, affecting judgment or behavior. Knowledge is what is known. It is richer and more meaningful than information.
Additionally the Toyota suppliers were also in competition among themselves in the sense that the quickest grasping supplier will most probably get business for the new model. They were of the view that open and organic information culture leads to larger sharing. Furthermore they also proposed that those individuals who feel that their knowledge belongs to them rather than to their organisation can be expected to share their knowledge more Burgess, Research has shown that the ready availability of examples for KMS users led to a significant enhancement in their problem-solving skills when compared to the skills level gained through the use of traditional reference materials McCall et al, Results have further shown that groups having access to KMS far outperforms those working in the traditional groups.
Moreover this edge vanishes when the KMS access is removed. It has also been deducted that while both the groups gain different types of explicit knowledge the traditional groups have a tendency to encode most of the rules in memory.
However the KMS group manages to gain superior-level of explicit knowledge which acts as a key to tacit knowledge formulation. They have put more emphasis on the importance of business strategy to be communicated to the employees.
Another important aspect to be noted here is that the knowledge sometimes acts as a double-edged sword; though too less leads to in-efficiencies, too much can lead to rigidities that can be counterproductive in a rapidly changing world. Furthermore too little may lead to muddled social relations, too much will lead to curbing of different perspectives Bowker and Star, According to Schultze and Leidner , too little may lead to costly errors, too much may lead to undesirable answerability.
While some of these are internal to an organisation data warehouse, transaction database, knowledge portals others are external commercial database, credit reports, news agency announcements, etc.
Delen and Hawamdeh, If the organisations try to integrate the multiple sources into a single unified system just for the sake of centralization of the sources of information then it leads to highly rigid systems which are not practically manageable. Some of the major reasons of the failure of KM are the multifaceted and multidimensional nature of knowledge available in an organisation.
The dynamic nature and relationships between the knowledge management frameworks is also cited as one of the major reasons of failure of KMS. An efficient KMS should allow the user to easily access the explicit knowledge stored in any system that can be applied to address the issue in hand. KMS should increase the ease with which user can find a potential solution to the problematic situation. There are two critical demerits of KMS which might balance out the potential of the encoding of the knowledge available explicitly.
Firstly, the vast amount of information and different ways of retrieving it via KMS could lead to likely increase in the amount of mental workout to retrieve the information Rose and Wolfe, ; Rose, Secondly, it is the supposed simplicity of availability. If the information is easily accessible then the user will just use it for his situation without feeling any kind of motivation to encode the knowledge.
Researchers have found that many companies who have implemented Enterprise Resource Planning ERP are of the view that the software will provide them a new chance to improve operational support and will simultaneously provide them a competitive advantage also Irani et al, Although the resources of knowledge varies firm wide but usually it constitutes of manuals, letters, information about customers and derived knowledge of work processes.
Organisations are realising that knowledge will not automatically flow throughout the company. A critical aspect of knowledge sharing is providing the right means which should work within the organisational context. Over the period of time, organisations have realised that information technology IT is the only means by which enterprise knowledge can be shared effectively.
Video-conferencing, sharing of application and providing support electronically are some of the key enablers of knowledge sharing processes. They can provide an excellent support to the already existing infrastructure of knowledge management. Although both of these organisations are educational institutions they provide an excellent case study of efficiently using information systems in their KM processes.
The key role being played by information systems is to assist in the storage and diffusion of knowledge so that knowledge can be accessed across the space and time Schultze and Leidner, Information systems provide visibility to the invisible work and the complexity involved in doing that work. Figure 7 shows the key role being played by information systems in the success of KM projects.
Normally it is at the centre of many KM projects Halawi et al, However organisations who are implementing information systems into their KMS need to take few factors into consideration. It incorporates cultural and organisational aspects as well, it is necessary to design proper metrics to access the positives of KMS Halawi et al, Furthermore an integrated technical architecture is the critical driver for KMS.
Proper use of information systems will facilitate the process of knowledge transfer, assisting in both the transmission and absorption and utilisation of knowledge. Researchers have found groupware, an IT tool for working in a group is of immense help in the proper implementation of KM in organisations.
Groupware helps in interpersonal communications and facilitates the transfer of tacit knowledge Wua et al, Most of the top technology firms rely mainly on their dynamic ability to transform the knowledge in their organisation to add value to their customers. Researchers are of the view that the focus on tacit knowledge should not lead to not giving due importance to proper implementation of information systems. A proper balance needs to be found and exercised Kalkan, In the current world, any organisation having improper implementation of information systems will be at a disadvantage position in the marketplace.
Implementation of information systems should always be knowledge oriented. This paper makes an attempt to analyse the role of information systems in efficient utilisation of KM. It has been highlighted as to how information systems are crucial in making an innovative organisation highly efficient. The demerits of KM without proper information systems are discussed.
The efficient way in which Toyota managed its knowledge sharing using information systems within the organisation and across its suppliers has been discussed in detail. An attempt has been made to throw more light on the other aspects of proper IS implementation. Organisations should not consider that just by implementing Information systems all our problems will be solved.
As the research area is still evolving, more future research can be done on this topic. There are further sub-categories within KM which can be researched in more detail. Those categories will further provide a detailed view of the topic. While few organisations who implemented information systems has been analysed, other organisations also need to be analysed in this regard. Furthermore the definition of innovation and efficiency can be analysed from the perspectives of organisations implementing.
This will provide a broader picture of the research area. Finally the last initiative was professional excellence role enhancement ownership culture personal growth employee and learning. Tata consultancy services has another training hub in addition to others as well to further train new recruits in different aspects of software engineering, quality systems and different technologies which is a major improvement.
The training included soft-skills development such as leadership and teamwork. The trainers were drawn from different parts of the business with significant subject expertise and experience.
Tata consultancy services have also made training centers overseas in line with its global expansion. Also Tata consultancy services have developed a number of ICT interventions to increase knowledge sharing. Some of the main improvements to help with the strategic alliance are to advance knowledge, learning, and skills development. The essay started by mentioning a short description of the history of the two companies. The discussion included advice regarding a strategic alliance with Cisco.
Two of the key elements of this case study which were discussed. The current weaknesses in Tata Consultancy Services with an approach to knowledge management and the improvements that are made to eliminate these weaknesses have been mentioned.
In the discussion, strategic alliance was explained by definition and examples provided as well to justify. As per the objectives of this essay, the current weaknesses in Tata Consultancy Services with an approach to knowledge management and the improvements that are made to eliminate these weaknesses are discussed. Accessed September 14, We will write a custom essay sample on Knowledge Management specifically for you.
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Knowledge management is the company is very huge and in many sectors. How to maximize the effective of the knowledge and use them for different purposes is very important. First, the knowledge management system can help the manager to implement and analyze the strengths and weakness of the company.
Knowledge Management and Instructional Technology - Knowledge Management and Instructional Technology The new "buzz word" in many corporate circles currently is the term "Knowledge Management or K.M." KM is considered mostly a role for the Information Technologist because of its storage of the company's information on .
Knowledge Management programs are typically tied to organizational objectives and are intended to lead to the achievement of specific outcomes such as shared intelligence, improved performance, or higher levels of innovation. Knowledge is a competitive advantage for all organization but the way we used the knowledge is the most important. The aim of this study to discuss the relationship between knowledge sharing mechanism and the development of pricing strategy, how we can know that we developed a successful pricing strategy, how we can achieve our .
The advice to knowledge management issues has been discussed. The planning and concepts are communicated and a detailed answer is written to discuss facts with the use of external sources and these have been referenced. Towards the end after all the points been considered, improvements with the linking to knowledge management have been . Knowledge Management "Knowledge management is the set of practices aimed at discovering and harnessing an organization 's intellectual resources. It 's about finding, unlocking, sharing, and altogether capitalizing on the most precious resources of an organization: people 's expertise, skills, wisdom, and relationships.