This explains the emergence of numerous human rights organizations to protect the underrepresented and enforce nondiscrimination. In New York, state law provides maximum and minimum sentences to those who commit hate felonies for specific types of bias crimes misdemeanor. Several other states, for example Massachusetts, have enacted similar laws. However, in most of these states, penalty enhancements generally apply to a broad category of violent acts.
Some states even limit these provisions to certain crimes, like assault and battery. Federal legislation encompasses only ethnicity, race, religion, and national origin. State legislation has only extended to cover sexual orientation in thirty-two states, to gender in twenty-eight states, and to disability in thirty-two states. However, the country still lags behind in implementation of appropriate laws regarding bias crimes.
Lawrence holds that those who argue against inclusion of sexual and gender orientation as factors for bias crimes gather support for societal justification, not themselves. He argues that women are important targets for protection of their rights. Besides, victims of many crimes related to gender are transposable as long as they share the attribute and often do not have an affiliation with their attackers earlier. This means that these attackers have a specific bias towards their victims.
Nonetheless, he emphasizes that the element of bias may not be a main motivation behind the actions of a perpetrator. Where it is not in the legislation, with regard to incorporation of gender in bias crimes or against any other oppressed group, criminal offences should not be regarded as bias Lawrence, Conclusion It is almost three decades after the state passed the first hate criminal law, but racial violence continues to be a menace to the American society.
Lawrence nails these issues right on using a detailed argument on the shortfalls of the society. His call for the differentiation between bias crimes and parallel crimes and a more severe punishment for bias crimes solidify his arguments. I believe his stand and argument has substantial grounds to merit an inheritance of these ideas by federal governments for the greater good of the society.
It can also be deduced that Lawrence is dissatisfied by the manner in which hate crime is punished and the legislation of related laws and regulations. However, it is clear that there is enforcement to the law utilizing different methods and the state continues to augment its implementation including the related policies.
This means that the perception of bias crimes as separate from parallel offences can reduce these crimes to minimal cases. However, a rate-limiting factor lies within the existing literature regarding the enforcement of law towards hate crime.
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Research Paper on Hate Crimes. Deal All The Aspects of Hate Crimes Research Paper Hate crimes are those crimes that are the result of hate for certain group of people belonging to some religion, race or ethnicity. Proponents of hate crime laws feel strongly about society making a statement that biased or hate crimes will not be tolerated and that serious penalties will be applied to those who commit such crimes.
In addition, these laws are important in order to deter potential hate crime offenders who intentionally target members of subordinate groups. There have also been arguments against the formation of hate crime laws. Not all believe that hate crimes have been a significant problem in society; rather, some see it as a media-exaggerated issue—a product of a society that is highly sensitive to prejudice and discrimination. Thus, a special set of criminal laws that include hate is not warranted, and the generic criminal laws will suffice.
Those who oppose hate crime laws also argue that attempting to determine motivation for an already criminal act is difficult and may pose moral problems in that the offender is being punished for a criminal act and for his or her motivation. It has also been argued that hate crime laws do not deter people from engaging in these crimes. Others argue that the disagreement over which subordinate groups to include in the hate crime laws actually causes added discrimination and marginalization.
Critics state that what these laws effectively are saying is that one group is more worthy of protection and care than another.
Hate crimes are a specific type of crime committed against individuals or groups because of their race, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, or ethnicity. Genocide is an extreme form of hate crime, and other examples include cross burnings, physical assault and even threatening text messages.
This research paper will present the history of hate crime law, the scope of the problem, the theory and psychology behind hateful/prejudicial behaviors, characteristics of perpetrators and victims, policing hate crime, and responding to and preventing hate crime.
A bias crime also referred to as a hate crime is an offence committed against properties or people, which is motivated, in part or in whole, by the suspect’s prejudice, bias, or hate towards an identifiable group footed on, perceived or real national or ethnic origin, race, colour, mental or physical disability, language, sex, religion, sexual orientation, age or any other similar factor. - Hate Crime in the United States of America THESIS: In this research paper, information will be given on hate crime in the United States of America. It’s best to know about these types of crimes before it’s too late because it’s rarely reported or spoken about but does occur on regular bases.
Hate Crimes research papers examine the criminal acts motivated by prejudice. Hate crime research papers look at the sociological, criminal justice or psychological aspect of hate crimes. Paper Masters custom writes all our research papers so you can have any aspect of . Hate crime research paper thesis September 13, Now i'm lost. is this a reply to me? the last thing i wrote was a request for essays that clearly took a different tack to mine.