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The Purdue University Writing Lab and Purdue Online Writing Lab OWL assist clients in their development as writers—no matter what their skill level—with on-campus consultations, online participation, and community engagement. The Purdue OWL offers global support through online reference materials and services. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Common Words that Sound Alike Numbers: Text Elements Visual Rhetoric: Process and Materials Overview: An Introduction Researching Programs: Research papers are time-consuming; you will be spending countless hours researching the topic and related topics, developing several primary and secondary sources, and putting everything together into a paper that is coherent and accomplishes your objectives.
If you do not choose a topic you are passionate about, the process will be far more tedious, and the finished product may suffer as a result. Your Level of Experience: Being interested in a topic is great, but it is even more helpful if you already know something about it. Available Information on the Topic: Be sure to choose a topic that is not only interesting but also one that has numerous sources available from which to compile your research.
A researchable topic with several potential sources gives you access to the level of information you need to become an authority on the subject. An interesting topic to you may not necessarily be interesting to your professor or whoever is grading your research paper. Before you begin, consider the level of interest of the person s who will be reading it. If you are writing a persuasive or argumentative essay, also consider their point of view on the subject matter.
As you begin researching your topic, you may want to revise your thesis statement based on new information you have learned. This is perfectly fine, just have fun and pursue the truth, wherever it leads. These fairly high numbers needed to treat for primary prevention in moderate-risk persons incorporate some of the biases of the underlying studies, so they are probably on the optimistic side.
Information from references 8 through The common theme of these three POEMs is that physicians may be overtreating cardiovascular disease if patients at low or moderate risk of disease are treated as intensively as those at high risk.
Compared with high-risk patients, lower-risk patients experience the same costs and potential harms with a lower probability of benefit. Study 4 Table 2 8 — 10 addresses the question of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease using aspirin in otherwise healthy persons.
For every persons who took one aspirin per day for seven years, one cardiovascular event was prevented, but also one additional major bleeding episode occurred. Study 5 identified four studies on the treatment of mild hypertension in patients without known cardiovascular disease, and found no reduction in mortality or cardiovascular events. These studies were of relatively short duration and were underpowered for mortality as an outcome.
All studies involved drugs that are no longer prescribed in the United States. They also included beta blockers, which are no longer considered a first-line medication for hypertension. These caveats are not important enough to negate the studies' overall findings—only enough to suggest that a small benefit to treating mild hypertension has not been ruled out, and more research is needed.
Many patients at low risk of cardiovascular disease are treated for hyperlipidemia in the United States, perhaps because the benefits are overestimated. It found that the number needed to treat was 80 to prevent one death from any cause over a year period for patients taking a statin compared with placebo.
Can honey decrease nighttime cough and improve sleep in children with upper respiratory tract infection? A teaspoonful of honey, given alone or with a noncaffeinated liquid before bed, decreases cough frequency and severity while improving the sleep of parents and the child with acute cough.
Placebo also works, but not as well. Both honey and placebo give parents an active role in their child's well-being while not exposing the child to potentially harmful medicines. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends not giving honey to children younger than 12 months because of the rare risk of botulism. Two commonly used strep scores 15 , 16 are as effective as advertised for determining low likelihood of streptococcal pharyngitis in children and adults see an example at https: Their proper use, advocated in the United States by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, can decrease costs by avoiding unnecessary testing.
Does use of azithromycin Zithromax increase the risk of cardiovascular death? This is one more reason to avoid inappropriate use of antibiotics and to use amoxicillin instead of azithromycin when appropriate. Information from references 12 through The authors of study 7 Table 3 12 — 17 found that a little honey decreases the frequency of cough in children between one and five years of age, and helps parents and children sleep better.
Additionally, it is safer than over-the-counter cold preparations. For patients with sore throat, a strep score instructs physicians to assess for fever, adenopathy, exudates, and absence of cough. Study 8 indicates that using a score can help decrease costs without adversely affecting the quality of care. Macrolide antibiotics have long been known to increase the QT interval in some patients, rarely leading to arrhythmia and cardiac death.
Study 9 used data from a large Medicaid database that linked information about prescriptions for azithromycin Zithromax with episodes of cardiovascular death, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality.
Adults given azithromycin were matched with four patients who did not receive an antibiotic or who received an alternative antibiotic. Although there is only a small increase in the risk of death, many prescriptions for azithromycin are unnecessarily given for viral respiratory tract infections, making any serious adverse effects caused by this drug particularly unacceptable. In patients with chronic illness complicated by depressive symptoms, is exercise effective for decreasing these symptoms?
Getting patients with chronic illness on their feet and into exercise programs decreases their depressive symptoms. The response is greater in patients with higher depression scores and in patients who exercise regularly.
These results apply to patients with depressive symptoms in general, not just to patients with major depressive disorder. Can lifestyle intervention improve mobility and reduce the likelihood of disability among adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes? A fairly intensive lifestyle intervention had impressive results, with a significant reduction in disability and loss of mobility. The benefit was associated with the weight loss and the improved physical fitness.
Mortality and morbidity data were not reported by the authors. What is the usual course of acute low back pain and of persistent low back pain? Most patients with acute low back pain have significant improvement at six weeks, although some still have significant pain at one year after presentation.
Information from references 18 through The value of exercise and lifestyle interventions is often underestimated. Studies 10 and 11 Table 4 18 — 20 demonstrate that even modest exercise can reduce morbidity and mortality, and improve symptoms of depression.
Study 10 is a systematic review of 90 studies comparing exercise with nonexercise treatment in patients with chronic disease and depression. Benefit was greatest in patients with higher depression scores, but occurred in any patient with depressive symptoms.
The researchers found that the number needed to treat to achieve good mobility was 18, and to avoid severe disability was Study 12 systematically reviewed the literature, identifying high-quality cohort studies of patients with back pain. For patients with acute or subacute back pain duration of less than 12 weeks , the pain score decreased from 69 at baseline to 28 at six weeks and to 4 at one year. Disability scores decreased from 57 at baseline to 28 at six weeks and to 11 at one year.
For patients with persistent back pain duration of 12 weeks to 12 months , disability scores were 51 at baseline, 28 at six weeks, and 15 at one year. What are the acceptability and cancer yield of colonoscopy and fecal occult blood testing? Fecal occult blood testing every two years is more acceptable to patients than colonoscopy, and results in a similar cancer yield but a lower yield of advanced adenomas.
Although at this point the weight of observational evidence and limited clinical trial evidence supports endoscopic screening every 10 years, for patients who are unwilling to undergo colonoscopy or who cannot afford it, fecal occult blood testing with semiquantitative fecal immunochemical testing is a good option. Does screening for prostate cancer in asymptomatic men improve mortality? After more than a decade of follow-up from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, there appears to be no mortality benefit to screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer.
Does screening for prostate cancer with PSA testing decrease prostate cancer—specific mortality? The authors of this evidence review concluded that PSA testing provides a small reduction or no reduction in prostate cancer—specific mortality and increases the risk of harm. If there is a benefit to PSA screening, it is very small. One in eight men has a false-positive result with regular testing, leading to more testing and treatment, which is likely to be harmful.
Information from references 21 through Study 13 Table 5 21 — 23 is the initial report of a large randomized trial of colorectal cancer screening comparing a fecal immunochemical test for blood in the stool every two years as opposed to the guaiac test with colonoscopy. Testing the stool for blood and not using a rectal examination remains an important option for colorectal cancer screening.
Articles about prostate cancer screening remain of great interest to primary care physicians. There is an attendant harm of more than men who are diagnosed with and treated for prostate cancer, and several dozen men who experience incontinence, erectile dysfunction, or both.
Preventive Services Task Force recommend against the use of prostate-specific antigen testing for screening in men of any age. What is the best interval for repeat bone mineral density testing in older women?
This study suggests that if the results of the initial screening test are normal or reveal only mild osteopenia in the femoral neck, the patient can wait 15 years before having a second examination. Women with moderate osteopenia should be retested five years after the initial screening, and those with severe osteopenia should consider annual testing until they are given a bisphosphonate.
What is the optimal dosage of vitamin D for fracture prevention? A dosage of IU per day is associated with a lower risk of hip and vertebral fracture among persons older than 65 years. A higher baseline vitamin D level is also associated with lower risk of fracture, but this may be because higher levels are a marker of better health and good health habits. How do the failure rates of long-acting reversible contraception methods compare with the pill, patch, and ring?
62 rows · Jan 29, · Census records and secondary sources were used in this research project. Sarah De Cruz. 1/18/ Metal Hydrides Company’s Involvement In The Atom Bomb This paper touches upon the Metal Hydrides Company’s involvement in the Atom Bomb. Their actual contributions, labor, research,materials etc is investigated.
Finding a Research Topic Assigned Topics. In many instances, your professor will give you a list of topics to choose from for your research paper. Since all of these topics are bound to offer plenty of sources for research, your best option in this case is to choose the topic most familiar to you.
This is the second annual summary of top research studies in primary care. In , through regular surveillance of more than English-language clinical research journals, seven clinicians identified studies with the potential to change primary care practice, called POEMs, or . The topics are specifically organized to help you find one that will work for your project. Broad topics are headed, and then below them are narrowed topics, all to help you find an area to focus on. The way we have organized the topics for research papers can save .
All of these results are generally primary research articles, but keep in mind that while all case studies are primary research, not all primary research is in the form of a case study, so you may be missing some primary research articles on your topic by searching this way. Management of spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency (premature ovarian failure) The use of bisphosphonates in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis Iodine deficiency disorders.