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Classical and Operant Conditioning - Research Paper Example

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❶The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term.

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Pavlov’s Dogs and the process of classical conditioning
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In fact, the development of a true phobia is quite rare. Many people may feel some anxiety at a dog's attack, but few will exhibit true phobic reactions such as a racing heart and an urge to flee.

There are thus many other factors that mitigate one's conditioned response. The development of phobias can be mitigated by an individual's personality and temperament. Additionally, classical conditioning could help to explain the development of phobia. Mom's exaggeratedly fearful reaction to seeing a beetle is a strong non-neutral stimulus for a child. Thus, the previously neutral stimulus of a beetle, and later all insects, will elicit a conditioned phobic response from the child.

This response could then be codified into a phobia well into adulthood. In support of this argument , many psychologists cite the fact that many phobic adults grew up in households with at least one phobic parent Bouton and Bolles In summary, the development of phobias is a complex process, one that is influenced by classical conditioning since the beginning of history.

Our ancestors learned to be fearful of potential threats to their safety, and of being in situations that could be dangerous, either by experiencing these dangers first-hand or observing others. Their conditioned responses to dangers such as sudden noises and dark spaces were then observed by their progeny. Through classical conditioning, previously benign stimuli such as a sudden movement in a bush would now cause the conditioned response of alarm and flight.

Similarly, phobias could develop as conditioned responses today. A childhood trauma could certainly form a strong conditioning stimulus, one that elicits a response of conditioned fear. Furthermore, the phobic reactions of parents can be a strong non-neutral stimulus, thereby conditioning a child to respond in a phobic matter to the perceived object of danger.

Therapies to phobia Many therapies are currently in use to help people manage their phobia, or to get rid of phobia entirely. Approaches include the use of drugs such as Paxil, Prozac and Celexa work through selectively inhibiting the brain's absorption of the chemical serotonin.

As a result is that the individual feels less anxiety and has a greater sense of well-being. Learning Theory Researchers have suggested a number of different theories to explain the process of learning. From the late 19th century and the early 20th centuries to present times, psychologists….

Cognitive Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Behavior Therapy Clinical psychology is a field constructed on the intent to treat disorders and…. As these collaborative efforts and…. Clinicians have always been reminded or expected to perform examinations of mental disorders and draw diagnoses from objective factors, such as symptoms.

But recent studies showed that, despite this traditional…. From the late 19th century and the early 20th centuries to present times, psychologists… Pages: Cognitive Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Behavior Therapy Clinical psychology is a field constructed on the intent to treat disorders and… Pages: As these collaborative efforts and… Pages: But recent studies showed that, despite this traditional… Pages: Retrieved September 14, , from https: Accessed September 14, Email Us Listen to our radio ad!

Click here to read a random sample of our writing. Pavlov is best known for his intricate workings with the drooling dog experiment that lead to his further research in conditioning. This experiment, which began in , had an influence on the development of physiologically oriented behaviorist theories of psychology in the early years of the nineteenth century.

His work on the physiology of the digestive glands won him the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. Pavlov's first independent work focused on the physiology of the circulation of the blood Girogian, He studied the influence of variations in blood volume on blood pressure. He also investigated the nervous control of the heart, and argued that four types of nerves control rhythm and strength of cardiac contractions.

It was during this first independent study that Pavlov used unanesthetized, neurologically intact dogs Girogian, This method became the mainstay of Pavlov's methodology. Pavlov's second independent work centered primarily around digestion. He started studying digestion as early as , and it was his major focus from to Girogian, His work was an accumulation of observations on the nervous control of one organ system through the method of chronic experiment Girogian, The study of digestion involved developing "fistulas" through which secretions from salivary glands, stomach, the pancreas, and small intestine could be collected Girogian, His technique was truly unique in that he did not cut the nerve supply nor contaminate the secretions with food.

The most famous and well-known experiment of Pavlov is that he 'conditioned' dogs to start a salivary response to the sound of a bell. He began by measuring the amount of salivation in response to only food. As the experiments continued, he rang a bell as he presented the food Girogian, These experiments defined what has been a "conditioned response". Classical Conditioning is the type of learning made famous by Pavlov's experiments with dogs.

Pavlov presented dogs with food, and measured their salivary response how much they drooled. Then he began ringing a bell just before presenting the food. At first, the dogs did not begin salivating until the food was presented.

After a while, however, the dogs began to salivate when the sound of the bell was presented. They learned to associate the sound of the bell with the presentation of the food. As far as their immediate physiological responses were concerned, the sound of the bell became equivalent to the presentation of the food.

Through Ivan Pavlov's experiment with dogs and their reaction to stimulus, he set the basis for Classical conditioning. The methods of how classical conditioning works can be described in the following sequence Mischel, , p. There exists an unconditioned, natural response, like a reflex called a UCR.

There exists a stimulus that triggers this response called the UCS. Eventually, the organism man, dog, ect.

Examples of classical conditioning

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Classical Conditioning Paper PSY/ May 05, Professor Chelsea Hansen Classical Conditioning Paper Abstract: Throughout this paper a theory of classical conditioning will be described and detailed.

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- Classical and Operant Conditioning QUESTION ONE Classical conditioning is a technique of learning that occurs when an unconditional stimulus is paired with a conditional stimulus. The unconditional stimulus is biologically potent, the conditional stimulus is neutral (Kalat, ).

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Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which the subject begins to associate a behavior with a certain stimuli. This paper discusses classical and operant conditioning, rephrasing what they are, and explaining them with real-life examples. Classical and operant conditioning are different methods of learning. Classical Conditioning research papers discuss the psychology experiment done by Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov. Research papers on classical conditioning look at Pavlov's famous learning theory. Paper Masters will custom write a research paper for you on classical conditioning that looks at any aspect of Pavlov's theory and apply it however .

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Classical conditioning is a technique used in behavior modification to teach a subject to respond in a desired manner to a naturally reoccurring stimulus, along with an unconditioned stimulus that evokes the desired response. This sample Classical Conditioning Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper.