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Essay: Prejudice and Discrimination

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❶It was observed that caste consciousness develops faster in boys than in girls, in rural than in urban children, earlier and faster in upper castes than lower castes.

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This would mean that jobs suddenly become harder to get, and only the highly qualified would be getting all the jobs. This could all happen if each individual taught their children that they need not judge on skin color, clothes, or social status, but judge on productive ability.

In conclusion, there is no way that prejudice will ever be abolished in any society; it is futile to even try. As you can see from the previous paragraphs: I rest my case. I was working on a essay not too long ago.

I go to a school in Delaware, We are learning about prejudice essays. If any advice write me back. We will never be able to measure the … […]. I have to write a big essay with source pages and this really helped me get a better concept on the topic thank you very much for posting this.

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Notify me of new comments via email. Essay on Prejudice December 6, Posted by sdpurtill in Uncategorized. Prejudice We will never be able to measure the full effects of prejudice: Thank you so much, this really helped.

This essay is goooood Reply. This is very good essay! We will never be able to measure the … […] Reply. Nice essay rlly helped me i have a point assigment Reply. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Email required Address never made public. Sam Purtill works at Okapi Studio title: Everything here, though, is his personal opinion and is not read or approved before it is posted.

No warranties or other guarantees will be offered as to the quality of the opinions or anything else offered here. This site uses cookies. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use. Since, the repressed tensions remain in a dynamic form and always in the verge of coming out, they are reflected in the defence mechanism of projection. Through this mechanism, they attribute uncomplimentary and mallacious characters to a specific group or race. The California study of Frenkel-Brunswik relating the T.

T test conducted on the anti-semantic girls indicated meaningless jealousy, repressed hatred and suspicion towards parental figures. These repressed tendencies find out outlet in negative attitudes and antipathy against various racial groups which serve as scope goat. Prejudice is also caused due to ambiguous and crisis situation. In a crisis situation, the individual frequently may take recourse to beliefs and attitudes of racial prejudice.

At this moment, the only available interpretation offered to him by his culture and environment is accepted quickly to meet the crisis situation. There is no time to wait, analyse and reason before accepting the facts. Their ambiguous and vague ideas and beliefs about other countries now in a crisis situation become crystallized and they quickly accept the readymade ideas and suggestions. People also seem to develop prejudice for the sake of self respect, to defend the self and to maintain the individuals identification with the society which is also called conformity.

Beliefs and attitudes of racial prejudice frequently stem from emotional experiences and needs. But they result in guilt feeling, emotional conflicts and aggressive defence reactions etc.

Thus, it is said belies and attitudes do something for the person and to the person. Causes of prejudice have also been explained from the psychodynamic point of view by some through repressed hostility, castration anxiety and Oedipus complex.

Minor conflicts between small groups is related to national and international tension and prejudice. Parents often transmit their own prejudice to their children. Several Studies indicate that parents are the primary source from which the racial prejudices are learnt.

But Bird and his associates found low correlation between the attitudes of parents and children towards Negroes. Though these studies do not refute the role of parents in the causation of prejudice, they, however, suggest that heavy weightage should not be given to the role of parents in the transmission of prejudice.

Different studies indicate that in younger age group less prejudice is observed. Studies also show that young people are relatively more tolerant compared to older people. Before three years prejudice does not enter the minds of children as studies indicate. Waller , Maykovich and Mohanty found that age and education were significantly associated with ethocentrism. Katz observed that by the age of three or four years children are able to distinguish between blacks and whites and also possess different feelings towards them.

Since ages, some occupations are considered appropriate for men than for women and vice versa. Jobs in police, airforce, navy are considered to be in appropriate for women and jobs of teachers, doctors and nurses are said to be appropriate for women. It is a prejudice. Here historical attitude influences this discrimination. Studies indicate that religious background or religion as a causative factor of prejudice do not provide any consistent picture. However, several studies show Catholics to be more prejudiced against negroes, protestants next most prejudiced, jews and people with less religious affiliation are least prejudiced.

Investigators like Hanlan Adorno etal. Conflicting result in this area need further investigation on the relationship between religion and prejudice. Each and every culture has got certain beliefs, attitudes, stereotypes and prejudices regarding other groups. Prejudices are, thus, portions of cultural heritage. Studies reveal that prejudice found in a particular culture is prevalent in the children of that culture.

Sociologists and anthropologists say that increasing urbanization, complexity of society, increasing population density and competition for jobs operate in various ways to increase prejudice towards minority groups. Prejudices also occur because of the differences in languages spoken, customs and ways of living like the differences in the ways of living of Hindus and Christians, Hindus and Muslims, whites and blacks, Americans and Jews etc.

Prejudice increases particularly when a group feels that he is threatened by another group. Prejudices, infact, grow as a social norm of a group to which all adjust and share. All these discussions and studies on the determinants and causes of prejudice lead to one basic truth that the underlying factors of prejudice are multidimensional and large number of factors operate in the development of prejudice.

In India, research on prejudice is of special significance because of various castes, creeds, communities and religions in Indian society. Prejudice in India, therefore, manifests itself in many forms in relation to religion, caste, language etc.

The importance of studies on prejudice in India has been realised specially after when the Hindu Muslim conflict became a matter of grave concern for the sociologists and psychologist.

The range of social distance is very high in Indian societies because of inadequate interpersonal relationship. This is obvious from the Hindu, Muslim conflicts, riots, Christian and nonchristian feeling, lower and higher caste feeling, and the exploitation of the poor class by the rich. Sometimes politically dominant groups continue to dominate on other groups. This creates ill feeling, anger and as a result prejudice in the minds of the disadvantaged and weaker section of the society.

Though, large number of studies on prejudice have been conducted in western countries, the findings of such studies are not fully applicable in India. Since, Indian social conditions are completely different from the western conditions the western finding cannot give adequate information about the origin and development of prejudice in India.

In order to get accurate information in this regard, studies on prejudice are to be made in the Indian climate, Indian socio-economic conditions and in the prespective of the uniqueness of the Indian society, Indian and Western societies are different culturally, economically and politically. Hence study on prejudice has to be conducted in the Indian land on the Indian people for the last so many years. After independence, there has been a lot of discussion on national integration which is extremely urgent in the present India because of suspicion, hatred and distrust among the members of the society.

To bring out national integration scientific study of prejudice in India should get top most priority. Thus, sociologists and social psychologists have attempted to perceive prejudice and other social tensions as an important area of investigation in India. In the field of Methodology also, the original Indian attempts and necessary as techniques used to measure Negro.

White prejudice or Anti-semitic prejudice cannot be used in the Indian context. In the ICSSR survey of social psychology it has also been pointed out the work of prejudice has not been very extensive and very little work has been done on the genesis and evaluation of stereotypes and prejudices.

So, it is high time to start research in this field. The studies were mainly based on Hindu Muslim relations and intercaste tensions. Murphy observed that in India, the child rearing practices may be connected with prejudice. Murphy has emphasized on dependence, early freedom from frustration leading to the absence of habits, controlling aggression, lack of opportunities in childhood for group planning and thinking, leading to lack of methods of resolving conflicts between groups in adulthood responsible for development of prejudice.

Adinarayan Using Bogardus social distance scale studied the racial and communal attitudes of Hindu-Muslim respondents before and after independence. Results indicated that the attitude of the Hindus towards the Muslims have undergone tremendous change for the worse after the creation of Pakistan.

Little significant difference was found between the social and communal attitudes of men and women in India. Khan found that people belonging to different groups have unfavourable attitude towards each other. According to Ansari group prejudice between Hindus and Muslims have been very strong and widespread to distort intergroup perception, judgement and evaluation of the qualities.

Singh a noted that the Indian students in Britain rated the English higher than Indian in public role. On the other hand, the Indians were rated higher in private roles. Dutta conducted a study to measure attitude of University students towards religion and found that females were more religious than males. Hites examined the effect of age, and education on religious attitude and found that older people were more religious than the younger ones.

Further, the more educated people were less religious than the less educated people. He found that compared to Christian subjects, the non- christians attributed more unfavourable and less favourable adjectives to Indian Christians. Chatterjee attempted to explore the existence of communal, caste and sex prejudices and also the socio-psychological correlates among female college students of high and low caste.

Findings indicated that while the urban students had higher religious and gender prejudices, the rural students had more religious information than the other groups. There was a significant positive correlation among these prejudices and religiousity, authoritarianism and anxiety, but these were negatively related to religious information. Singh found that the prejudiced school children compared to the unprejudiced ones had very little correct information about other religions and the unprejudiced children had more correct information not only about their own religion, but also about other religions.

Hasan and Singh found that the personality variables had higher correlations with prejudice than sociological variables. Results indicated anxiety to be the most powerful correlate of prejudice. Kupuswamy , Rath and Das , Rath and Sircar have made some studies on caste prejudice. Singh, Singh and Singh made a study on the development of caste consciousness among children between years of age.

It was observed that caste consciousness develops faster in boys than in girls, in rural than in urban children, earlier and faster in upper castes than lower castes. Only significant difference was observed in the stereotypes of the two groups. Educated group indicated larger significant stereotypes than their uneducated counterparts. Thus, results indicated that the cognitive component of the attitude was more unfavourable in the educated group compared to the uneducated group. Singh studied the nature and causes of intercaste tension in two villages in eastern Uttar Pradesh.

Individuals involved in conflict at the time of the investigation tended to show more tension. Further, social distance was found to be greatest between Brahmins and Harijans and least between Brahmins and Marathas.

Chatterjee found that male college students had more caste prejudices than female college students. Since, prejudice develops through a slow and gradual learning process and hence, cannot be checked suddenly, it was felt that the study of various prejudices in children would help in channelising and controlling them. Among different prejudices, social prejudices like caste, sex and class prejudices are of tremendous importance as social life, inter personal relationship and adjustment of the individual in social situations are determined by them.

Caste prejudice manifests itself in intercaste tension, religious prejudice through communal riots and religious conflicts and sex or gender prejudices, in the form of intolerance of the members of the opposite sex. As a result of such prejudices, people confine their social interaction within a restricted group. Besides creating and elevating all sorts of misunderstanding, tension and mistrust progress of the nation is hampered due to cold war and back biting.

Prejudice has been the most important topic of Social psychology as it is related to socialisation and formation of personality. The theories of prejudice indicate that the origin and development of prejudice can be traced to the early years of socialisation.

But very little studies on prejudice have been done on children. By studying the development of prejudice in the early years of childhood, during the process of socialisation the causes of prejudice can be traced.

But only a fewer studies have been done on children. Most of the works on attitudes, stereotypes and prejudice are mostly of the survey type. The time was, therefore, ripe to study the development of prejudice in children from the psychological, social and cultural stand. Since, prejudice grows slowly with the growth of personality, and gradual learning process, the root of prejudice lies in the childhood. Though, certain methodological difficulty lies in studying young children, like the difficulty of measurement etc.

Against this background G. Mohanty made an attempt to find out whether children of different groups formed on the basis of caste, religion and sex differ or not in caste, religious and sex prejudices. The purpose of the study was to compare the amount and pattern of religious, caste and sex prejudice and to study the relationship between personal factors and prejudice in the children of two important religious groups, Hindus and Muslims.

The Hindu and Muslim boys and girls were matched on caste, level of education, age, sex and area of residence. There is no significant difference between boys and girls in religious and caste prejudices. No significant difference is found in religious and caste prejudices between high caste boys and girls.

Low caste girls have higher religious and caste prejudices than low caste boys. In sex prejudice, however, the comparative groups do not show any difference. High caste Hindu and Muslim do not differ significantly in any category of prejudice.

Both the comparative groups do not have any prejudice as all the mean values are less than the midpoints which further suggest that both the caste groups are not prejudiced, so far, as religion, caste and sex are concerned.

There does not exist any significant difference in the religious, caste and sex prejudices of Hindus and Muslims. Low caste students show significantly higher religious, caste and sex prejudices than the high caste students. No true difference is obtained between the low caste Hindus and low caste Muslims, so far, as religious, caste and sex prejudices are concerned. High caste Hindu boys show significantly greater sex prejudice than high caste Hindu girls.

Low caste Hindu girls show significantly greater religious and sex prejudice than high caste Hindu girls. No significant difference exists between low caste Hindu boys in religious, caste and sex prejudice. High caste Muslim boys and girls do not show significant difference in the extent of religious, caste or sex prejudices. High caste and low caste Muslim boys do not indicate any significant difference in religious, caste or sex prejudices.

Low caste Muslim girls have scored significantly high in religious and caste prejudices than low caste Muslim boys. High caste and low caste boys do not show significant difference in any category of prejudice considered for the present study. High caste and low caste girls show significant difference in all categories of prejudices. High Caste Hindu boys and girls do show significant difference in their religious and sex prejudices. High caste and low caste Muslims show significant difference in their religious and sex prejudices.

Higher significant difference is obtained between the low caste Hindu and Muslim girls only in caste prejudice. Thus, keeping in view, the summary of the findings of this investigation it was concluded that, by and large, boys and girls differ significantly in their prejudice scores and that high caste and low caste school students also indicate significant differences in their prejudice. But no significant difference is obtained between the prejudices of Hindus and Muslims which is definitely an interesting and significant finding.

Further, research in this area by taking large samples may perhaps throw more light on the problem of Hindu-Muslim prejudices. Prejudice creates all sorts of misunderstandings and dangerous gaps between persons, groups, nations and nationalities.

It is the root of cold war, jealousy, quarrel among persons, societies and nations. All round development of society is blocked due to the development of strong prejudices. Irrational prejudices against each other have marred the quality of civilized human life.

By producing social distance and social tension prejudice functions mostly in a negative manner. Prejudice promotes social tension and jealousy which exploits the peace, prosperity and happiness of human civilization. Prejudices virtually affect all of us and pose serious problems in personal and social life and cause unnecessary tensions, irritation, arrogance and friction and what not.

Hence, reducing prejudice and eliminating its negative effects are important tasks. The negative consequences of prejudice are explained in the slaughter of six million Jews by Nazi Germany. Perhaps, it is the most blatant example of prejudice in recent history. Some prejudices present real social danger leading to conflict and struggle between political parties, socio-economic groups, races, sexes and religions.

Prejudices have multiple causes and some prejudices are probably inevitable. A large number of methods and strategies have been used to reduce prejudice and discrimination. Prejudice cannot be completely removed or eradicated as it grows in the society and in the minds of men. However, it can be reduced by the following techniques developed by different social scientists. The studies of Lazarsfeld , however, indicate that radio broadcast meant to promote intergroup relations were not listened by the group to whom the discussion was addressed.

Some have suggested that any attack on prejudice can be successful when its core its attacked and both the group needs and personal needs to be taken care of to combat prejudice. Williams in his report on the removal of prejudice has pointed out that instead of a large scale application of the methods, it will be wiser for the social scientists to pretest the different techniques of reducing prejudice.

So, he remarks that there can be no action without research and no research without action. He has also suggested some other programmes of reducing prejudice which can be used in heterogeneous people of India suffering from severe prejudice.

He emphasizes homogeneity and difference in socio-economic and political systems in individuals and in caste, community and gender. If all people become equal in everything, probably there will be very less prejudice which is, of course, practically impossible.

Thus, homogeneity can reduce prejudice and if all the groups are assimilated in to one homogeneous groups some common belief, cultural set up, attitude and religious pattern prejudice will be drastically reduced.

One of the ways of reducing prejudice is to mould the view of different people into one. The emphasis is, thus, in universality. But practically it may not be possible. Some have suggested cultural pluralism to reduce prejudice.

In this, the distinctive characteristics of different groups will be retained but all the groups will be under the umbrella of one system of value and tradition which will be the common social denominator. Thus, there should be unity in diversity. This idea of reducing prejudice is specially applicable in India, which contains heterogeneous groups.

This doctrine presents a compromise between the universality technique and individuality technique use to reduce prejudice. UNESCO has sponsored research to reduce social tension and prejudice in different parts of the world. Murphy in this connection came to India to study prejudice. Some social psychologists working in the area of motivation have argued that by changing the motivational factors and needs of individuals their prejudice can be reduced or changed. Since beliefs and attitudes play a paramount part in the personality structure of the individual, any positive programme changing beliefs and attitudes must be tailored to these motivational factors.

Prejudice can be reduced by eliminating the repressed, frustrated and socially unacceptable need structures. Further, psychological insight of parents should be increased for psychological therapy. Thirdly, any economic, political and sociological policy that can minimise the frustration of any important need is a major weapon in the control of motivational factors leading to prejudice. Though, it may be difficult if not impossible to undertake a programme of action of this type, certain needs, like self expression, leadership, belongingness, power and recognition can be satisfied by becoming a member of various cultural, fraternal and recreational organizations.

Sometimes profound and disturbing emotional experience produce culturally unaccepted behaviour leading to strong prejudice. To remove the effects of traumatic emotional experiences, children should be trained to get emotional security through psychological education, guidance and counselling.

Research indicate that prejudiced individuals often became anxious and sullen when relating with the targets of their prejudice. By controlling the negative attitude towards a minority group one can take steps to remove the environmental support to change prejudice. Surnames, symbols, dress and food habits of persons should be changed which keep people separated from one another.

But people may not like to change their uniqueness and hence, Lewin has viewed that it may be psychologically unsound. Since, in crisis and frustrating situations, beliefs and attitudes are more amenable to change this advantage should be utilized to change prejudice. Fieldman has suggested three major techniques to reduce prejudice and discrimination: When groups spend time together differences disappear.

Allport first suggested that intergroup contact can reduce prejudice if it is structured in appropriate ways. But identification of appropriate contact is urgent as various instances of prejudice are seen in areas of interaction between majority and minority group members.

Contact is effective to the maximum degree when there is equal status within a setting of people belonging to both groups. The interaction must be close physically and mentally, Superficial contact is ineffective in educating prejudice. Intimate contact helps to individualize the disliked group members which indicates that a person will be perceived less interms of a stereotyped one and more interms of an individual.

Contact becomes very effective when the two people cooperate in a mutually interdependent activity. Katz used the self insight training technique to reduce prejudice. They thought that since prejudice is largely ego-defensive, providing insight into the dynamics of prejudices may help in the reduction of prejudice. Since prejudice is related to authoritarian personality as suggested by some, change in child rearing practices may also reduce prejudice.

Rigid discipline, harsh and dominant behaviour of parents lead to insecurity, feeling of deprivation and maladjustment in children which are conducive personality traits for the growth of prejudices.

By flexible and democratic child rearing practices prejudice can be avoided. Since, prejudice develops out of the socialization process, the pattern of socialization is to be changed to change prejudice.

Secord and Blackman have held that prejudice may be reduced, when a member of the minority group occupies two incompatible roles. Venkatasubramanyu using a self rating scale tried to reduce prejudice towards the Hindi language of the Northerners and the Brahmin caste of the South Indian College students.

He used classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning, modelling influence and self counter conditioning to reduce prejudice. Results indicated that out of high prejudice subjects, 85 had changed significantly. He also found among the above four methods used the most successful methods to reduce prejudice were selfcounter conditioning through role playing and modelling influence.

Instrumental conditioning and classical conditioning were least effective. Since, prejudices are caused by multiple factors, he also found that prejudice is reduced considerably when multiple methods are used. Changes in the beliefs and attitudes about the minorities and the outgroups can bring a corresponding change in prejudice and behaviour towards members of such groups.

Through persuasion, demonstration and propagandas, this aim can be achieved. In propaganda to reduce prejudice, controversial elements may be disguised or eliminated by distortion of relevant facts and the motives being propaganda may be hidden.

It is also observed that only when propaganda is based on economic groups, it becomes useful in distorting the displacement of aggression. In any type of propaganda against prejudice where historical and traditional forces are operating, understanding of interpersonal relationship and group need is of tremendous importance. By teaching people to understand others and like them through direct educational techniques prejudice can be reduced.

Integration of elementary school education i. Some educational programmes have been held for this, but there has been no systematic attempt to evaluate such programmes. Baron and Byrne have also suggested four techniques to combat prejudice which overlaps to some extent the other strategies. They held that, though, none of the strategies alone can totally eliminate prejudice and discrimination together, they can make substantial improvement in these persistent problems.

Children are not born with any attitude, belief or prejudices. So, parent should be given training not to teach their children to hate anybody, not to develop feeling of discrimination, annoyance and irritation without any real basis. Campaigns should be planned to increase the awareness of parents and to discourage them to demonstrate prejudice in their own behaviour. Attempts should be made to nip prejudice from the bud.

Teachers can also play a positive role in this regard. This is known as the contact hypothesis and has been discussed earlier. The potential benefit of acquaintance might prove effective by knowing each other. The negative schemata developed earlier may crumble or change in a positive direction. Cook says that direct intergroup contact may prove beneficial only when it occurs under highly specific conditions i.

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Free College Essays - The Prejudice in Pride and Prejudice - The Brutality of Prejudice in Pride and Prejudice The passage which best relates the theme of Pride and Prejudice, by Jane Austin, is on page , in the middle of the page.

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Join Now Log in Home Literature Essays Pride and Prejudice Pride and Prejudice Essays Theme of Pride William Park Pride and Prejudice. In the novel Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, she displays a stark contrast between two characters in the story. Austen does so by discussing the theme of pride throughout the novel.

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Essay on Prejudice and Pride in Pride and Prejudice - Prejudice and Pride in Pride and Prejudice In any literary work the title and introduction make at least some allusion to the important events of the novel. Types of Prejudice. A number of types of prejudice exist in society today. The following are just a few of the most prominent prejudices. Racism – Racism is a form of prejudice that has been around for centuries. One of the most common forms of racism is racism against black/African-Americans.

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Essay: Prejudice When a person hears the word prejudice, he or she might think it only refers to the racial prejudice often found between those with light skin and those with dark skin. However, prejudice runs much deeper than a person’s color. Essay # 5. Functions of Prejudice: Prejudice creates all sorts of misunderstandings and dangerous gaps between persons, groups, nations and nationalities. It is the root of cold war, jealousy, quarrel among persons, societies and nations. All round development of society is blocked due to the development of strong prejudices.