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❶This indicates that the quality of advertising tends to be more important than the quantity of advertising.

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Print advertising tends to work more slowly than television or radio. Therefore, an especially long period of time or an especially heavy media schedule is required to fully evaluate the total effects of print advertising. Print is an important arrow in the media quiver, however, because a share of the population tends to be heavy readers. Outdoor advertising also called out-of-home or OOH is especially effective as an advertising medium, if used properly.

First, the message must be a on strategy and b expressed in few words. Outdoor advertising is great at extending or reinforcing the key theme of a television or radio campaign. If some of the visual elements and the key theme of a television or radio campaign can be condensed and shown via outdoor advertising, the awareness-build of television can be accelerated.

Outdoor advertising can add a visual element to a radio campaign e. Social media continues to grow in importance and reach. Its ultimate value as an advertising media remains to be seen. Ads and commercials intended for online delivery or social media distribution operate by the same rules as all other advertising.

Television-testing techniques, for example, can be applied to commercials that look like television commercials, regardless of where those commercials are aired. Static banner ads are similar to print ads and can be evaluated by those metrics. Many social media and online ads and commercials fall in between these extremes, and require some adjustments in measuring techniques.

Advertising is primarily a strategic weapon, as previously noted. Its total effects must be evaluated in the context of years, not weeks or months. Advertising cannot compete with sales-promotion and direct-marketing activities in generating short-term sales effects. But in the long term, the cumulative force of strategically sound media advertising can achieve results that cannot be equaled by sales promotion or other marketing activities. Given the greater effectiveness of new product advertising, one of the most common marketing mistakes is failure to take advantage of this inherent benefit i.

Perhaps no other industry has a failure rate as high as the advertising industry with the exception of the promotion industries, direct-marketing industries, telemarketing industries, and other alternatives to traditional advertising. The persistently high advertising-failure rate results primarily from the lack of an accurate feedback mechanism—a lack of testing and evaluation.

Among commercials that are effective, the degree of sales effectiveness can vary greatly from one commercial to the next. One commercial might be several times more effective than another. This indicates that the quality of advertising tends to be more important than the quantity of advertising. Nevertheless, the quantity of advertising i. Limited online surveys or telephone tracking research that can even be done with modest budgets can monitor the cumulative effects of advertising upon awareness, brand image, and consumer attitudes.

This is one of the simplest and most effective ways to make sure that your advertising is doing its job. Recall of specific messages from advertising is not a very good indicator of advertising effectiveness, and some very effective commercials produce little measurable message recall.

Message recall is a positive factor, but its importance should not be overstated. Advertising management comprises research to determine the needs and characteristics of the target market, strategic planning to determine advertising goals and objectives and how to reach them, advertising design, and evaluation of advertising and campaign effectiveness.

Advertising is just one element of the integrated marketing communications process, which is an approach to marketing communications that combines and integrates multiple sources of marketing information e.

In order to understand how to manage the advertising function, one must first understand the nature of advertising as a communications process. Figure 1 shows a simplified model of how advertising attempts to communicate a message to potential customers in an effort to persuade them to purchase the organization's products or services. At its most basic, the communication process begins when the organization i. After the organization decides what it wants to convey to the customers e.

However, this information does not reach the prospective customer directly; it first goes through a series of filters that screen the message. These filters may alter the meaning of the intended message. For example, in the figure below, Acme Corporation is not the only organization that is trying to reach the customer. Two competitors are also sending messages that their widgets are superior and less expensive.

The customer may unconsciously screen the message for other reasons, as well. For example, the customer may be a loyal customer of Gizmo Corporation and, therefore, only consider Gizmo's ads for widgets.

Or, the customer may not like the background music played in the commercial or the layout of the print advertisement run by Acme and so chooses to ignore them. The potential customer then decodes the filtered message rather than the intended message and encodes an appropriate response. This leads to either positive or negative feedback to the organization that sent the message e. Part of the function of advertising management is advertising communication. Constant repetition of a sales message helps make people feel that they know the product, whether or not they like it.

Television makes it possible to repeat a message as often as an advertiser can afford. Commercials are extremely flexible and allow advertisers to demonstrate their product, create a mood, make a blockbusting announcement about the product, or try it out in certain areas.

Advertisers can usually find some combination of TV presentations that will communicate the desired impression. Television advertising also involves several unique problems. Advertising messages on TV come and go quickly. If people have their sets on, but are not watching or listening, they cannot return later. And when commercials are bunched together, a viewer might use the time to get a snack or see what else is on. Although some network shows reach viewers for a surprisingly low cost, certain minimum cost considerations can price the medium-sized advertiser out of the television field.

People tend to believe something more if they actually see it in print. Another disadvantage is that mass coverage creates the lack of selectivity for the audience. It is difficult to determine exactly the viewing audience and there by choosing which commercials to air at certain times.

Television is used to build and reinforce brand image and awareness. TV gets more than half of all national consumer-advertising dollars. Using the networks as a marketing strategy has become very popular.

Ralston began using some network television advertising halfway through the week study period. Ralston saw its market share go up from 4. Company sponsorship of individual TV programs saw decline after the quiz show scandals of the s. Individual advertisers occasionally affect content, but advertising as a form of financing has a more pervasive impact. A decision a TV channel must make within its schedule is the amount of advertising to allow. Some programs that are very flexible, such as newscasts and sports events, permit channels to air large quantities of advertising time.

When a channel only sells a small amount of advertising, it can fill in with advertising for its own programs. If, for example, a TV channel broadcasts a series of minute sit-coms during an evening, there will only be time for 5 minutes of advertising per half hour.

By considering the amount of advertising a channel allocates, a producer can speculate the audience size their commercials receive. At the same time, the effect of advertising on the product markets is only felt after the advertising has been actually aired and watched by the viewers. Advertising firms make their decisions about how much to advertise on each channel only after the TV channels have committed, not only to their programming, but also to their quantities of advertising.

For discussion purposes, television advertising can be broken up into four stages. The first stage involves each TV channel choosing its quantity of advertising and a programming schedule. The goal is to maximize profits by determining how much advertising to allocate and which programs to broadcast.

In the next stage, each producer determines how much to advertise on a specific TV channel. An advertising firm looks at viewer demographics and audience size when deciding which channel and commercial to use to realize the most benefits. The viewer then decides whether or not to watch TV and, if so, which TV channel to watch.

They make their decision after the TV channel and producer have already completed their advertising decisions. Finally, the producers compete in the product market by advertising and differentiating their products. The goal is to distinguish their product from others.

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Advertising is the persuasion of an audience to take some action, which is usually buying the product. Advertising research paper due and don’t know how to start it? How about like this? Advertising tries to give the audience enough information about the product to create an interest, but not so much as to bore the audience with details. As a result, . 1 Marketing Research Paper Connie F. Dents MKT/ April 16, Sean Duclaux 2 Marketing Research Paper Kudler Fine Foods is an upscale food store that specializes in specialty food, domestic, and imported wines. Kudler Fine Foods are located in the Metropolitan area of San Diego California.

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Advertising for new products tends to be more effective than advertising for established products (it’s the “news value” of the new product). In other words, it’s easier to create effective advertising for new products than it is for established products. The ARF is the premier advertising industry association for creating, aggregating, synthesising and sharing the knowledge required by decision makers to lead and succeed. JAR is published four times a year for the Advertising Research Foundation by WARC.