Kennedy 's books are almost entirely credited to ghostwriters. A consultant or career-switcher may pay to have a book ghostwritten on a topic in their professional area, to establish or enhance their credibility as an 'expert' in their field. For example, a successful salesperson hoping to become a motivational speaker on selling may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on sales techniques.
Often this type of book is published by a self-publishing press or " vanity press " , which means that the author is paying to have the book published. This type of book is typically given away to prospective clients as a promotional tool, rather than being sold in bookstores. Ghostwriters are employed by fiction publishers for several reasons. In some cases, publishers use ghostwriters to increase the number of books that can be published each year by a well-known, highly marketable author.
Ghostwriters are mostly used to pen fiction works for well-known, "name" authors in genres such as detective fiction, mysteries, and teen fiction. Additionally, publishers use ghostwriters to write new books for established series where the 'author' is a pseudonym. Dixon ", respectively, are actually pseudonyms for a series of ghostwriters who write books in the same style using a template of basic information about the book's characters and their fictional universe names, dates, speech patterns , and about the tone and style that are expected in the book for more information, see the articles on pseudonyms or pen names.
In addition, ghostwriters are often given copies of several of the previous books in the series to help them match the style. The estate of romance novelist V. Andrews hired ghostwriter Andrew Neiderman to continue writing novels after her death, under her name and in a similar style to her original works.
Many of action writer Tom Clancy 's books from the s bear the names of two people on their covers, with Clancy's name in larger print and the other author's name in smaller print. Various books bearing Clancy's name were written by different authors under the same pseudonym. Sometimes famous authors will ghostwrite for other celebrities as well, such as when H. Pascendi , for instance, was written by Joseph Lemius — , the procurator in Rome of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate.
There are ghostwriting companies   and freelancers  that sell entrance essays, term papers, theses and dissertations to students. Such services are sometimes offered by what is referred to as essay mills and frequently transacted through online interfaces.
Although academic ghostwriting involves the sale of academic texts that are written on demand, it cannot be equated with plagiarism , since it does not involve an undisclosed appropriation of existing texts. As opposed to cases of plagiarism that stem from a copy-and-paste reuse of previous work, essays and assignments that are obtained through ghostwriting services as a rule have the originality of their text confirmed by plagiarism detection software packages or online services that are widely used by universities.
Universities have developed strategies to combat this type of academic services, which can be associated with academic fraud , that are offered to students and researchers. Some universities allow professors to give students oral examinations on papers which a professor believes to be 'ghostwritten. With medical ghostwriting, pharmaceutical companies pay professional writers to produce papers and then pay other scientists or physicians to attach their names to these papers before they are published in medical or scientific journals.
Medical ghostwriting has been criticized by a variety of professional organizations   representing the drug industry, publishers, and medical societies, and it may violate American laws prohibiting off-label promotion by drug manufacturers as well as anti-kickback provisions within the statutes governing Medicare.
It is permitted at some institutions, including the University of Washington School of Medicine ,   while it is prohibited and considered a particularly pernicious form of plagiarism at others, such as Tufts University School of Medicine.
Professional medical writers can write papers without being listed as authors of the paper and without being considered ghostwriters, provided their role is acknowledged.
The European Medical Writers Association have published guidelines which aim to ensure professional medical writers carry out this role in an ethical and responsible manner. Some websites, including blogs , are ghostwritten, because not all authors have the information technology skills or the time to dedicate to running a website.
Nonetheless, the style, tone and content is modeled on that of the credited author. Many website ghostwriters are freelance but some are freelancers who work under contract , as with radio presenters and television presenters.
Occasionally a "house pseudonym", or collective name is used by the author of the website. Some celebrities, CEOs , or public figures set up blog websites—sometimes as a marketing, public relations, or lobbying tool.
However, since these individuals are typically too busy to write their blog posts, they hire discreet ghostwriters to post to the blog under the celebrity or CEO's name. As with nonfiction ghostwriting, the blog ghostwriter models their writing style, content and tone on that of the credited author. This goes for social media as well. Many public figures have ghostwriters at least partially handle their Facebook and Twitter accounts, among others.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is an example of a well-known composer who was paid to ghostwrite music for wealthy patrons. In the early years of film, David Raksin worked as music ghostwriter and orchestrator for Charlie Chaplin ; even though Chaplin was credited as the score writer, he was considered to be a "hummer" pejorative film industry slang for a person who purports to be a film score composer but who in fact only gives a general idea of the melodies to a ghostwriter.
The practice is also common in television, as composers listed on cue sheets are entitled to music royalties every time an episode or theme score appears on television. A investigation by The Hollywood Reporter revealed that it was especially prevalent among animation companies such as Saban Entertainment , DiC , Ruby-Spears Productions and Hanna-Barbera , which often listed company executives as musicians for the purpose of royalties.
Musical ghostwriting also occurs in popular music. When a record company wants to market an inexperienced young singer as a singer-songwriter , or help a veteran bandleader coping with writer's block or a lack of motivation to finish the next album , an experienced songwriter may be discreetly brought in to help.
A ghostwriter providing this type of service may be thanked, without reference to the service provided, in the album credits, or they may be a true 'ghost', with no acknowledgement in the album.
Legal disputes have arisen when musical ghostwriters have tried to claim royalties, when an allegedly ghostwritten song becomes a money-making hit. In , Darryl Neudorf was asked to work on a project for Nettwerk Productions involving a newly signed artist in their repertoire named Sarah McLachlan. This recording, the album Touch , resulted in garnering the interest of Arista Records.
She signed a multi-album contract with them and two of the songs that Neudorf worked on with her became commercial hits in Canada. In , Neudorf was invited back to work with McLachlan on her second album, Solace.
In , he filed a lawsuit against McLachlan and her label, Nettwerk , alleging that he had made a significant and uncredited contribution to the songwriting on Touch , and alleging that he wasn't paid properly for work done on Solace. The judge in this suit eventually ruled in McLachlan's favor on the songs; though Neudorf may have contributed to the songwriting , neither regarded each other as joint authors. The judge ruled in Neudorf's favour on the payment issue.
In hip hop music , the increasing use of ghostwriters by high-profile hip hop stars has led to controversy. Critics view the increasing use of hip hop ghostwriters as the "perversion of hip-hop by commerce. Currently in hip-hop, the credit given to ghostwriters varies: In the late s decade , hip-hop ghostwriting services like Rap Rebirth ,  have appeared online, which provide recording artists who wish to purchase ghostwritten rhymes a greater degree of anonymity. Ghost-authorship also applies to the visual arts, most commonly paintings.
The extent of the master artist's contribution varies widely, as little as composition adjustments and corrective brush strokes, or as much as entire works. A common practice is use of the art instruction class milieu in which the master artist makes significant contributions to the work of the student who then signs that work as his or her own. Services addressing complete works have historically been highly confidential.
Less prevalent are advertised commercial services which may use the term "vanity artwork" as suggestive of "vanity publishing". In countries where the freedom of speech is not upheld and authors that have somehow displeased the ruling regime are "blacklisted" i.
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