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Essay, term paper, research paper: World History

❶Although there is an underserved…… [Read More]. Many of the books I had were long and covered the history in so much detail that it was hard to skim through and take out the important events and make them fit into this paper.

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I have my 'Fodor's: Exploring Italy, second edition' and that should be enough. No, Italy represents many different worlds and 50 kilometers in any direction can make quite a difference in experiences. Sure, in the northern regions one can travel via tour to the grand canals of Venice or see the Alps leading into Switzerland. In the central regions, the bus can swoop you around to see the romantic city of Rome so every traveler can be exposed to the history of mankind or tour the Vatican.

And in the southern regions there are so many tours of the many beautiful Art Museums, lemon tree groves, a smoking active Volcano, or the vast beaches of…… [Read More]. Italy the Reign Ends. Benetton The April 12 issue of Newsweek International published an article on the Benetton family, Italians who parlayed one sibling's skill with knitting needles into a world-recognized company.

The company has had a recent past full of financial turmoil, and this article tells some of how they have dealt with it. The company Benetton began when Luciano Benetton received many compliments on a sweater his sister had knitted for him. In a rags-to-riches story worthy of repeating, he sold his accordion to buy his sister a knitting machine so she could produce sweaters faster, and he sold them for her. Benetton took some steps other small businesses might not have thought necessary. He traveled to Scotland to learn about sweater-making from people who had done it for a very long time.

One of the pertinent things students of international business might notice is that the Benettons seem to not care…… [Read More]. As each region struggles to maintain and assert its unique identity with the framework of a larger Spanish state, a greater Spanish identity has been difficult to muster. Many Spaniards view themselves and their loyalties in regional or ethnic terms first and foremost, and as Spaniards second, if at all.

In contrast, Italy has forged a strong sense of identity that frequently overrides regional differences. Italians usually view themselves as Italians foremost, and identify with regional labels only in a secondary way.

There is a move, however, to divide Italy's regions and create a new sense of identity, especially among those in the north of the country. The ultimate objective of this political movement, spearheaded by the Liga Nord party, is to…… [Read More]. Post-War Italy a Time of. From the end of the War to the early s, the ank of Italy was credited for attracting and managing international aid, which helped bring the country out of a steep state of emergency and on the path of reconstruction.

Italy's Technical Redesign A substantial part of Italian construction legacy was destroyed during World War II and designers and architects were called to the scene to restore and renew Italian dwelling places Web Marketing Team, Companies contributed experimental works. Feal Company created steel fittings. Olivari Company manufactured door handles.

Furniture companies came up with novelties in the 50s. These products included stackable kitchens and home appliances. One of the producers a few times became the second worldwide exporters of the goods after the United States. The turnout so…… [Read More]. Food History in Italy.

Geographical Location of Italy and Its Effect on the Italian Cuisine Italy is located in the Northern part of Europe and is geographically separated from other European countries by high mountains. Mountains occupy quite a portion of the country that create and provide magnificent valleys, forest, plains, rocks, and foothills.

The Mediterranean coastlines similarly add to the beauty of Italy. Moreover, Italy has a variety of weather conditions. These geographical features of Italy influenced the Italians to develop magnificent cuisines.

Italy is a nation in which every place seems to be bordered by a natural environment. Hence in every location, there seems to be a variation of culture. This is one factor why Italy produces a variety of great cuisines. Moreover, the rich sources of food ingredients, which the Italians derive from planting in its rich natural environments, help Italy to invent different tastes in their cuisines. The geographical features…… [Read More]. Unification of Italy Was a. From a Piedmontese expansionist Cavour became a politician whose actions were concentrated on the Unification Davis, Unlike Garibaldi and Mazzini, Cavour's actions towards militia were minor and towards ideology there were none, for the ideas of Unification and nationalism were foreign and ridiculous to him.

He even had a conflict with Mazzini: He stood in opposition to the figures of nationalists and their ideas. When it came to military actions, Cavour was not taking part with them, he only planned them and as a Prime Minister did accept some military decisions or did not -- for example the decision of taking part in the Crimean War.

As a long and complicated process, the Unification of Italy needed the devotion of many people, but it was also in need of leaders that would make the right…… [Read More]. Israeli relations with the European Union have become increasingly strained lately, noted by a new poll in which most Europeans believe that Israel is the greatest threat to world peace Schattner 1.

Thus, Sharon is trying to negate this image by taking a three-day trip to Rome, where he will hold talks with Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi. Sharon will use this visit to acknowledge the support Berlusconi has shown to Israel ever since Italy took over the rotating role as president of the European Union.

Sharon will also use this opportunity to gain Italy's support in taking concentrated international action in the war…… [Read More]. Allied Campaign in Italy in orld ar II ith the invasion of North Africa, the United States Army in late began a ground offensive against the European Axis that was to be sustained almost pause until Italy collapsed and Germany was finally defeated.

This was the largest commitment to battle ever made by the U. Army, some four million were to fight on the European continent and a million more in lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Alongside the Americans were British, Canadian, French, and other Allied troops in history's greatest demonstration of coalition warfare, while Soviet armies on another front were to contribute enormously to the victory.

Schooling in Renaissance Italy. Schooling in Renaissance Italy: Literacy and Learning Johns Hopkins University Press, Let those men teach boys who can do nothing greater. Grendler's Schooling in Renaissance Italy: Literacy and Learning , is perhaps most humorous to a modern reader's eyes and ears, because it sounds dangerously like the phrase 'those who can't do, teach,' a very common and often repeated cliche today. However, this quotation also highlights the profound shift in the way that education was viewed, and would be viewed, over the course of the next three hundred years of Italian history.

Increasingly, education became valued by members of the Italian elite and by Italian society as a whole. Education came to be prized as a commodity and an example of refinement and taste, when exhibited by one's self…… [Read More].

Schooling in Renaissance Italy The popular expression is that we are what we eat - but it is at least as true that we are what we study. As Paul Grendler outlines in his study Schooling in Renaissance Italy, Literacy and Learning, , we can come to a deeper understanding of the ideals that were held up for the upper classes in Renaissance Italy. This paper examines the specifics of what was taught to Italian boys during the Renaissance as well as assessing what larger cultural and social ideals were being referenced by such an education.

The most obvious element of this education - especially in chapters five through nine, which this paper focuses on - is its backward-looking nature.

This was above all else a neoclassical education, with a focus especially on the great Latin writers but with a nod also made to Greek writers.

It is important to…… [Read More]. Water Crisis Watersheds in Italy. Italian Watersheds All ivers un to the Sea Water is life. That may be a cliche, but it is also a fundamental truth. Without water nothing can live, and certainly not human beings. We depend on it directly to keep our bodies functioning but we also depend on it in indirect ways: To water our crops and to provide rivers in which goods may be shipped.

And -- and this is no small thing itself -- because they provide beauty to our lives. However, despite the fact that water is vital, we as humans are all too often disinclined to care for it. All environmental preservation must include an aspect of protection for watersheds. Indeed, protection of watersheds must often be at the center of a sound environmental policy. This paper examines the state of two Italian watersheds and what their future may be.

That future, of course, will be…… [Read More]. Backpacking in Italy the Plane. After the noise level of Rome, the silence of the Venetian canals was welcome. Just as before, though, the two inexperienced travelers hadn't booked a hostel in advance.

They headed straight for a tourism office that phoned a couple of cheap hotels for them to check availability. But it is on the Lido. Isn't there anything cheaper? The tourism office worker rolled her eyes and found no humor in the ignorant American boys. She instead drew out a map of Venice without saying a word and with a highlighter marked where they were a few footsteps from Santa Lucia train station and then on the…… [Read More]. Political Unification of Italy and. As Metternich was forced to resign, the German princes hastened to make peace in order to avoid political experiments like the ones that were developed by the republicans and socialists in France.

They introduced, by appointing liberal ministers, civic and political reforms, guaranteeing the powers of the legislature and citizen rights.

However, the most important step was the attempt to achieve political unification, by founding a National Assembly that would insure the representation of all Germans. Elections were held and the Assembly met at Frankfurt on May Ironically, the enthusiastic members of this assembly discovered the enormous differences of opinion between them. The liberals and the democrats were at the center of the political fight. The democrats were still trying to conspire for a much more radical course of action.

The form of national unification was one of the major points of disagreement. The Grossdeutsch movement pleaded for an…… [Read More]. The Golden Bull of fixed the number and identity of the electors. And while the Empire finally received an orderly method of choosing its sovereigns, the power of these sovereigns had largely passed from the center to the periphery.

The old empire existed in name only. Italy too is part of the story of the German rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. The part of Italy north of the Papal States was an actual part of the Holy Roman Empire, while Sicily, in the extreme south, was at times under the rule of the Emperors.

In particular, Frederick II was famed for the glorious, and learned, court he maintained in Sicily. Italy was very strongly affected by political developments North of the Alps.

The same divisions between Church and State that plagued the rest of the Empire were prominent in the Italians city states as well. For Italy, like…… [Read More]. Florence Train Station in Italy. Florence train station and its qualities. The Florence train station might be expected to be designed in the classic or even art deco style, but instead, it is a classic and well-known example of Italian modernism. Architects Giovanni Michelucci and Italo Gamberini were two of the members of this group.

Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini approved of the final design of the station after a controversial competition, and many architects believe the Tuscan Group modeled their design after Viennese modern architecture and America's Frank Lloyd Wright, known for his modern and novel architecture. The Tuscan Group only designed the front of the building, the platforms, waiting areas, and such were designed by an Italian Ministry of Communications…… [Read More]. Cosimo De Medici e know all about the de Medici family - one of the most important dynastic families in Europe and in particular concerning the cultural and artistic life of Italy and so of the continent.

And yet, as Dale Kent makes clear in her authoritative and fascinating account of the family and in particular of the life of Cosimo De'Medici, we actually know less about the family than we think.

Kent argues that common ideas - and common misconceptions -- about the De'Medicis reflect not only flawed knowledge about this family in particular but also more general flawed assumptions about their era and about prevailing attitudes of the time towards artistic patronage and indeed towards art. Kent's book is as much an ethnographic exploration of the culture and society of fifteenth-century Florence as it is about Cosimo de'Medici himself - although in her telling the man and the…… [Read More].

Baxandall's central thesis is that the style of painting in any society, from the Renaissance to our own, is reflective not simply of an artistic tradition, handed down from master to master in terms of technique, but is also reflective of the rhythms and habits of ordinary, daily life. Baxandall attempts a synchronic, or specific and contextually located study of this period of art, and the perspective of the art's gazers, rather than attempts to make an argument about the nature of art in general in…… [Read More].

Opera Italy Is the True. The aria also became a hallmark of the opera through Monteverde's influence, which also helped opera spread throughout Italy and later, throughout the Continent and even to England. In England, the art form built upon the earlier tradition of medieval stage plays and masques, which when added with Italian elements developed a unique style of English opera.

Founded in Bologna Italy in Ducati. Founded in Bologna, Italy in , Ducati is a leading manufacturer of high performance motorcycles. Since the s, its motorcycles have dominated international motor racing competitions and have competed in road racing competitions with engine capacities of over cc a measurement for the motor cylinder capacity.

Product diversification can be divided into four segments: Italian Feminism and Masculinity. Italy is a cultural hub of gender identity where issues of feminism and masculinism have been deeply entrenched for many years. For centuries Italy has been considered a more masculine country, though the majority of work documented related to masculinism actually is sparse.

Issues of feminism and masculinity has surfaced in the workplace, where naturally access to issues such as equal employment and technology have surfaced. Gender inequality issues in Italy have in fact created a basis for the continuance of a feminism-masculinism dichotomy. Masculinism has been defined as "the property by which humans of the male sex are defined as manly" Noumenal, Alternatively, Simone de Beauvoir described femininity as "neither a natural nor an innate entity, but rather a condition brought about by society.

Italy Agriculture represents the lifeblood of any civilization -- we settled into communities for the purpose of growing crops and thereby making our lives easier.

For most of the history of civilization, agriculture was the dominant form of economy. Wealth was measured in growing land, or in the number of animals owned. Even after the invention of money, agriculture remained a critical source of wealth. In pre-Italy, the city states often gained wealth through trade, but in the countryside wealth remained related to agriculture, as food was the most important thing to most people. In the 20th century, food scarcity became rare, and agriculture diminished in importance -- nobody was truly worried where their next meal would come from, so other goods took on more value.

Cuba and the U. This not only a source of tension between the Americans and Cubans but nearly every nation that is a member of the United Nations has consistently voted to lift the embargo except Israel and some island called Palau which has accepted the U. Not only are there staunch political differences, the cultural differences are estimated to be nearly polar opposites; especially on the criteria of the individualism cultural dimension.

It was concluded that if these two cultures had…… [Read More]. Italy Both World War I and II were world events that left territories, countries, nations, and individuals exhausted from the effort and from loss. These wars proved ultimately ironic when the term "the war to end all wars" proved tragically inaccurate with the outbreak of World War II.

In addition to the devastation, however, were significant changes, developments and effects on the world and its paradigms. Decolonization, for example proved to be one of the most important effects.

Whereas colonization was a mainly European paradigm as means of transport and new discoveries enabled increasing voyages across the world, the World Wars created the ability of territories to become autonomous, searching for their own identity rather than identities that were associated with those of their colonizers.

For Italy, World War II also held its own specific events and paradigm shifts as the country became a territory affected by war and…… [Read More]. International Trade Economics Trade Between. Import Licensing Services arriers Also is concern in the presence of the government in the telecommunications market sector. Italy has also banned the commercialization of four corn varieties approved by the EU. The biotech corn ban may be in violation of EU regulations.

The United States and the European Union are the two regions with the largest amounts of imports in Textile and Clothing as well as in terms of their GDP and power of purchase. There are also investment barriers in place making it a lengthy process and investors are prohibited from the airlines and aircraft manufacturing markets. Government procurement is also a problem as it is fragmented in Italy and there are problems with Conclusion: There are…… [Read More]. Ideas of Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions.

People in societies exhibiting a large degree of power distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification, but in societies with low power distance, people strive to equalize the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power. France, Indonesia and the Arab World all score high on the Power Distance scale compared to Italy, which makes them more authoritarian societies.

With a score of 68, France scores high on the scale of the PDI, compared to Italy which has a score of It is therefore a society in which inequalities are accepted. Hierarchy is needed if not existential; the superiors may have privileges and are often inaccessible.

Power is highly centralized…… [Read More]. Italy in this period was no exception as leading forces continued to challenge the development of the country. The post war period saw varied challenges mitigating their way into the society, expected to introduce a new era of fascism, which was already on paper as Mussolini had already put it in place. It is within the ensuing decade that Roberto Rossellini continued to foster his career in the film industry, establishing the production of the movie Paisan.

Paisan is uniquely different from its predecessors, such as Open City by Roberto in all its aspects, except the fact that it retains the evident attractiveness…… [Read More]. Nation States the Formation of. Thus, German nationalism and the German nation-state came into being, an entity that existed well into the 19th century.

Similarly, the nation of Italy was highly influenced by the events of the French Revolution of and the outbreak of war between France and Austria in During this time, a number of important changes occurred within Italy, most of which like Germany were filled with violence and destruction, all in the name of nationalism and national sovereignty.

Following Napoleon's military triumphs in late , various northern Italian cities attempted to organize themselves into republics, cities like Bologna, Milan and Genoa, but with the Peace of Campo Formio with Austria in , France gained control of all northern Italy with the exception of Venice which experienced the collapse of its independence and liberty.

Under the influence of Napoleon and his generals, much of Italy was re-structured into a form of…… [Read More]. Films as Expressions of a Society's Values. Culture Films as Expressions of a Society's Values Criminals are glamorous and so are the people who follow them.

The countries to be compared are the United States and Italy. Each American film has an Italian counterpart that is similar in premise, characters, and sometimes time period. The films that will be referenced are: USA How is the criminal lifestyle glamorized? How is the criminal lifestyle glorified? The paper will locate and explain examples as well as counterexamples. The comparison will elucidate which culture glorifies criminals as well as the people who follow them, such as detectives, the media, or people who are fans of their work.

Some claim that it was the result of the fall of Constantinople and the many Greek scholars and texts which found their way to Italy soon after bringing with them not only the knowledge of the classical world, but the new Islamic knowledge that was derived from it. This influx on knowledge started a cultural revival which sought to recapture the glorious past of the classical world, but soon exploded into the creation of an entirely new cultural identity based on the classical past but transformed into something completely unique.

The ideas of the enaissance spread throughout Europe completely transforming European nations artistically, economically, politically, socially, technologically, and in virtually every other aspect of culture. One can…… [Read More]. Describe Italy in World War II and is aftermath through the late 's and how they impact through to the present day.

The history of any particular period can frequently best be described by the movies and works that were produced during that period. There is no exception made in the case of pre- and during the War Italy when certain movies and a novel that described the conditions captured the situation precisely. The description of this material and…… [Read More]. Querini Stampalia Foundation at First.

The interior architecture of the Querini Stampalia Foundation also provides a connection to the more historical details of Venetian and Italian architecture while at the same time not tying itself to the restrictions of an historic reproduction. Something as simple as a staircase has become, under Scarpa's careful design and guidance, something of strange geometric beauty that almost crosses the line into sculpture. The odd split in the stones that make up the stairs, and the spaces left in the faces of the stairs, look almost Moorish in their design.

They could also be seen to draw from far more ancient sources, like the Romans who occupied Italy long before the Moors were ever heard of in Spain. The regular geometry of the stairs makes them appear both very strong and also simple and easy to build, which would definitely have been favored qualities of older civilizations working with other…… [Read More]. Castelvecchio Mixing Old and New. This specific example is also indicative of some of the general ways in which the building was modified and updated.

In his restoration of Castelvecchio, Carlo Scarpa uses the basic geometric designs and patterns of the original medieval castle, but accentuates, develops, and emphasizes these geometric expressions in a very modern way.

The concrete beam in the example above compliments the angularity of the room at large, but is almost an exaggeration of it.

The beam itself s composed of three slabs of concrete at right angles to each other, forming three sides of a square or a sort of sideways "c," with the bottom open to the floor. Not only does the beams itself represent an intrusion of modern geometric appreciation into the castle, but even the construction of the beam itself reflects Scarpa's extreme devotion to geometry and geometric expression.

This amplifies the geometry that is such an…… [Read More]. Western Civilization European Statesmen Cavour's. Many say he was the ultimate realist, who would declare war only after every other option failed, but who unified Germany with a series of wars that ultimately led to the fall of Paris and a unified and extremely powerful German state.

He was a shrewd negotiator who realized that he could gain power over other countries by allying with them and then isolating them. He was adept at pitting one country against another for his own political gain, and he would promise territory and expansion to get what he wanted.

Germany definitely had more potential for leadership after the unifications took place. Germany had industry, a strong military, and a perceptive leader who would wage war when necessary and negotiate when necessary.

Germany was the most powerful nation on the European continent after it unified. West Publishing…… [Read More]. Product Launch Plan for Two.

As regards its advantages in the Italian market -- the Italian culture places a rich emphasis on food and wine, is interested in expanding its export business, and with a reputable wine export business flourishing in Italy, Kudler can gain a foothold with its own wine products. Possible discrepancies between American and Canadian definitions of 'organic' may cause concerns.

Then too, there is the reluctance of Canadian winemakers to allow alien influences to penetrate their market. Their aptitude in aggressively marketing themselves against current imports may pose challenges to Kudler.

As regards Italy, current economic difficulties cause the Italian population to prefer discount stores and cheaper food. Similarly too, the Italian retail market and European Union competitors may be unwelcoming to an American competitor that is attempting to enter their field.

There is an explosion in the demand for organic food. The Canadian wine market is still experimenting…… [Read More]. There are so many things that make successful storytelling. One of the major components that stick out is the events in the story. Selecting and arranging the events is highly important in the process of composing the story passage. Brainstorming and writing down an important list of the things that have gone on is something that is very vital. The more ideas a story has the better it will be to the reader.

It is also important to make sure that the story has a lot of detail and also the links that are between them. The details make a story really good because it draws the reader into the…… [Read More]. Global Business When businesses go international, they have to operate in a more competitive, uncertain, and risky business environment.

The forces present in the Global environment bring a number of challenges for the businesses; making it more difficult for them to maintain their market share, enhance profitability, and keep the customers satisfied Cherunilam, To compete successfully and ensure a sustainable future in the international markets, business organizations have to analyze these forces carefully and strategize accordingly.

This paper presents a comprehensive discussion on the positive and negative impacts of Globalization and the efforts which nations and business organizations make in order to become internationally competitive and keep up pace with the Globalization. The paper starts with a brief description of different environmental forces that are…… [Read More]. Strengths and Weaknesses of Italian Nationalism.

Italian Nationalism In the mid-nineteenth century, Italy had faced a great number of obstacles that would have impeded a united Italy, but for the movement of the leaders and the fighters who banded together under the same ideal.

Prior to the beginning of the nineteenth century, Italy itself was split into many states and kingdoms, in accordance to the different ethnic peoples of the country. Through the political activism engaged by such celebrated names as Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour, Pallavicino and Victor Emmanuel II, and the people's enthusiasm to see their kingdoms united, Italian nationalism was not just a dream shared by many.

In all respects, Italian nationalism also became a reality. The Leaders of Italian Unification Of the proponents regarding Italian unification, perhaps one of the most vocal of the group would be revolutionary activist Giuseppe Mazzini.

As many nationalists believed, the strength of a nation came not from the…… [Read More]. Reverse Mortgage Comparison of Spain. This would be only natural for central bankers, as wealth effects may be a very relevant factor in determining fluctuations in aggregate demand. Studies on wealth effects have been conducted in recent years, also in the ank of Italy, making use of household surveys. For a given level of net worth, the wealth effect may be defined as the extent to which household consumption changes in response to a change in asset prices relative to the general consumer price level.

Conceptually, this is no different from the old Pigou effect, but while that worked through changes in consumer prices that reduced the "value" of money balances in real terms, we now have asset prices rather than consumer prices as the main factor.

While consumer prices may be relatively stable, asset prices could move substantially, and the wealth effect could actually be a destabilizing rather than, as was once thought, a…… [Read More].

Starbucks coffee company is a leading roaster and retailer of specialty coffees. It has its base in Seattle and has many stores within the U. The objective of starbucks is the establishment of Starbucks as the most recognized and respected brand of coffee in the world.

Starbucks aims at entering more and more foreign countries. Among countries that Starbucks may consider venturing into is Italy. The initial idea to set up starbucks was from the Italian coffee tradition which was infused with the leisure approach found in Seattle.

Despite the fact that the idea came from Italy, Italy has been considered a mountain that starbucks…… [Read More]. Olde Distillerie Going Global With. The rules and regulations are designed to level the competition and to disrupt advantages of a country based on price and favored tax status.

All of the countries in the union must abide by these tax and trade regulations. In January of , Denmark and Sweden were forced to remove import restrictions on alcohol purchased for personal consumption EPHA, They are attempting to limit the general consumption and limit underage drinking in their country.

The farmers usually lived in town and traveled to work in the fields each day. This pattern of living was especially common in southern Italy, in northern Italy the farmers usually lived on their land. Italians take great pride in the quality of their cooking. They traditionally eat their main meals at midday. Large meals usually consist of a past course, followed by a main course of meat or fish.

Italian foods vary greatly by region. In the north, flat, ribbon-shaped pastas served with cream sauces are most popular. In the south, macaroni served with tomato-based sauces is the favorite type of pasta. Italians enjoy a wide variety of sports. Soccer is the most popular sport in Italy. Every major city has a professional soccer team. But soccer is not just a spectator sport- on weekends Italy's parks are filled with children and adults playing the game.

Basketball is also very popular, and some cities have more than one professional basketball team. Other popular sports include fishing, hunting, cycling, roller skating, and baseball. Most religious ceremonies such as baptisms, weddings and funeral services are held in church. Only about 30 percent of all Italians attend church regularly. Many others occasionally attend church. For example, the pact exempts priests and other members of religious orders from military service and gives tax exemptions to Catholic organizations.

The Roman Catholic Church has had a strong influence on laws in the past, but that influence has weakened. For example, until , the church was able to block attempts to legalize divorce in Italy. Vatican City, the spiritual and governmental center of the Roman Catholic Church, lies entirely within the city of Rome. But Vatican City is independent from Italy and has its own diplomatic corps. There are several small religious groups in Italy. The other groups include Protestants, Muslims and Jews.

Political Systems Italy set up its present form of government in That year, the people voted to change their nation from a monarchy ruled by a king to a republic headed by a president.

King Humbert II immediately left the throne. The president of Italy is elected to a seven-year term by both houses of Parliament. The president must be at least 50 years old. He or she appoints the premier, who forms a government. The president has the power to dissolve parliament and call new elections. The president is the commander of the Italian armed forces, and can declare war. The premier determines national policy and is the most important person in the Italian government.

The premier is selected by the president from the members of Parliament and must be approved by Parliament. The premier has no fixed term of office, and can be voted out by office by Parliament at any time. Members of the Cabinet are chosen by the premier and are usually chosen from among the Parliament. The Parliament consists of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate. Both of these houses have equal power in passing laws. The Senate has elected members and the Chamber of Deputies has members.

All former presidents become Senators for life. In elections for the Chamber of Deputies, the country is divided into 32 constituencies. The number of Deputies to be elected from each constituency is determined by its population. Each political party presents a list of candidates for the position of deputy from the district. The deputies selected from a party are chosen in the order of number of preference votes each receives.

Senators are chosen in much the same way, but are elected from twenty regions instead. Italy has a complicated system of election to parliament based on proportional representation. In the Parliament, the percentage of seats held by each political party is about the same as the percentage of the total votes received by the party's candidates. Since , Italy has experienced frequent Cabinet changes.

Most Cabinets have lasted less than a year, but many members of one Cabinet have remain in the new one. If some of the parties in the Cabinet are disagreeing with the Cabinets policies, they may withdraw support and require the formation of a brand new Cabinet. The fascist government that once ruled Italy is on the rise again. The fascist party grows in membership each year. Italy has also been reluctant to talk about the joining of the European nations into one large economic super power.

As recently as the 's, more than a third of all Italians were employed in agriculture. From to , industrial production almost tripled.

By the late 's, only about 10 percent of employed Italians worked in agriculture. The transformation has been most complete in northern Italy, which is now one of the most advanced industrial areas of Western Europe. Southern Italy remains poorer and less industrialized, despite long-term efforts of the Italian government to improve the region's industry and agriculture. In , Italy became a member in the European Economic Community.

This union of Western European nations, also called the European Common Market, has abolished tariffs on trade among its members. This membership has helped strengthen the economy of Italy.

Service industries account for about two-thirds of Italy's gross domestic product. Trade ranks as Italy's most important type of service industry. It accounts for a larger percentage of the country's gross domestic product and employs a greater share of workers than any other service industry.

Manufacturing accounts for almost a fourth of Italy's gross domestic product. Languages The language of Italy is Italian. Like French and Spanish, Italian is a romance language - one of several languages that evolved from Latin. There are only a few communities in Italy in which Italian is not spoken as the first language. German is the first language of many of the Terntino-Alto Adige region. French is spoken as a first language in portions of the northwestern part of Italy.

Solvene, a Slavic language, and Ladin, a language similar to the Romanasch of the Swiss, are spoken in northern sections of Italy.

The first one is the Alpine Slope. The Alpine Slope runs across the northernmost part of Italy. Its landscape includes huge mountains and deep valleys. Forests are found in the lower areas, in the higher areas, there are grasslands and conifer forests. The melting snow feeds many rivers. Many hydroelectric plants have been built along these rivers and help to power the factories of the north.

The second region of Italy is the Po Valley. This area is also referred to as the North Italian Plain. It is a broad plain that stretches between the Alps in the north and the Apennine mountains in the south. This valley floods periodically, but a intricate system of dikes helps control the flooding.

The third region is the Adriatic Plain. It is a small region north of the Adriatic Sea. Its eastern edge borders Yugoslavia. This area is not very well suited for farming. The fourth region is the Apennines. This region stretches almost the entire length of Italy.

The mountains in this region have steep inclines of soft rock and are constantly eroding as a result of heavy rain. The northern Apennines have some of the largest forests in the country and much pasture land. The central part of the range has productive farmland and grazing. The southern Apennines include the poorest part of Italy. This area has plateaus and high mountains, but few natural resources. The fifth and sixth regions are the Apulia and southeastern Plains. These form the "heel" of the boot-shaped peninsula.

This region is composed of plateaus that end as cliffs at the Mediterranean Sea. The seventh region is the Western Uplands and Plains. It is a rich agricultural region, second only to the Po Valley in agricultural output. Sicily is the eight region. Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is separated from mainland Italy by the Start of Messina. The island has mountains and plains. Mount Etna, one of the largest active volcanoes in the world, dominates the landscape of northeastern Silicy.

Sever erosion caused in part by the clearing of forests, has hampered agriculture and made travel in many inland areas difficult during the wet season.

The climate of Italy is temperate. The spring, summer and fall are generally sunny, but winter is rainy and cloudy. In early spring, hot dry air from the Sahara expands and covers Italy. The summer climate of much of Italy is dry, with occasional rainstorms. Technology Italy's technological level is equal to that of the U. S in certain areas. The northern part of Italy uses some of the most advanced manufacturing methods in its factories.

One quarter of the countries power is supplied through state of the art hydroelectric dams. More than privately owned television stations and over private radio stations are operating in Italy. Italy has an excellent system of roads. Large, modern superhighways run the length of the Italian peninsula.

Tunnels though the Alps link the highway system to those of neighboring countries. Italy has an average of about 1 car for ever 3 people. When compared to the United States, Italy is only slightly behind. The United States has more advanced computers and telecommunications system. In medical technology, Italy is equal to the U. S but the technology is not as widely available as it is in the United States. Natural Resources Italy is limited in the number of natural resources and must rely on imports.


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Italy is a country rich in agriculture, art, architecture, and especially food. The Italians are especially known for they're famous food. Italy's absolute location is 45N and 15E.

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- Italy Italy, is a boot shaped country in south-south eastern Europe. Italy, also known as the Italian Republic, is one of the seven most industrialized countries in the world. This lineup includes: United States, Russia, Germany, England, Japan, China and Italy.

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